A small but powerful Chinese rocket capable of carrying payloads at competitive costs delivered nine satellites into orbit yesterday, Chinese state media reported, in what is gearing up to be another busy year for Chinese commercial launches.The Jielong-3, or Smart Dragon-3, blasted off from a floating barge off the coast of Yangjiang in southern Guangdong province, the second launch of the rocket in just two months.Developed by China Rocket Co, a commercial offshoot of a state-owned launch vehicle manufacturer, Jielong-3 made its first flight in December 2022. President Xi Jinping has called for the expansion of strategic industries including the commercial space sector, deemed key to building constellations of satellites for communications, remote sensing and navigation.Also yesterday, Chinese automaker Geely Holding Group launched 11 satellites to boost its capacity to provide more accurate navigation for autonomous vehicles.Last year saw 17 Chinese commercial launches with one failure, among a new record 67 orbital launches by China. That was up from 10 Chinese commercial launches in 2022, including two failures.In 2023, China conducted more launches than any other country save the United States, which made 116 launch attempts, including just under 100 by Elon Musk’s SpaceX.Critical to the construction of commercial satellite networks is China’s ability to open more launch windows, expand rocket types to accommodate different payload sizes, lower launch costs, and increase the number of launch sites such as building more spaceports and using sea launch vessels.Jielong-3 can carry a 1,500kg payload into a 500-km sun-synchronous orbit. China Rocket Co has previously said the rocket could carry over 20 satellites at a launch cost of under $10,000 per kg – a globally competitive rate for small-lift rockets.The cost is similar to the launches of other Chinese small-lift rockets including the Long March 11, but their payload sizes are significantly smaller.Jielong-3 is comparable to the powerful Lijian-1, which first flew in 2022. Developed by CAS Space, a Guangzhou-headquartered commercial spinoff of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lijian-1 can also send a 1,500kg payload to a 500-km sun-synchronous orbit.Other commercial companies in the Chinese vehicle launch sector includes Galactic Energy, whose Ceres-1 rocket is capable of delivering a 300kg payload to a 500km sun-synchronous orbit. Beijing-based Galactic Energy made seven Ceres-1 launches in 2023, up from four in 2020-2022.But Galactic Energy logged its first mishap in September last year with the loss of a Ceres-1 rocket and its payload, forcing the company to apologise to its customers.Also in the fray is Landspace, whose launch of the Zhuque-2 in 2023 marked the world’s first successful payload delivery by a liquid oxygen-methane rocket and a breakthrough in China’s use of low-cost liquid propellants.In the realm of larger rockets, Orienspace in January launched Gravity-1 from a ship off the coast of eastern Shandong province. The rocket is capable of sending a payload of up to 6,500kg into low-earth orbit, making it the most powerful launch vehicle developed by a private Chinese enterprise.A small-lift rocket carries payloads of up to 2,000kg, while medium ones deliver up to 20,000kg and heavy rockets can easily carry in excess of 20,000kg. SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy is capable of lifting 64,000kg into orbit, but it has yet to make such an attempt.

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